Database management is the system for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and modifying it as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged due to unexpected failures. It is part of the informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.
A database is a collection of tables that organizes data in accordance with a certain scheme, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of fields called attributes that provide information about data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most popular database type today. This design is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to update different sections of the database.
Most DBMSs can accommodate different types of databases by offering different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views based on different models of data and may include virtual table that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.